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Alternatieve Hypothesis Statement

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Ten tweede is volgens het arrest een
[...] aansprakelijkheid buiten schuld in het geding in tweehypothesen.
Second, the judgment provides for strict liability in two cases.
De geraamde vertraging van de inflatie vloeit voort uit dehypotheseninzake de dalende olieprijzen en een verdere appreciatie van de euro.
The estimates of the slowing of inflation are based on the assumption that oil prices continue to fall and the euro appreciates further.
Om geen relevante aspecten over het hoofd te zien is
[...]
het onderzoek in de beginfase zo breed mogelijk
[...] gehouden en zijn geenhypothesengeformuleerd of standpunten [...]
In order to avoid missing any relevant aspects, the
[...]
investigation was kept as broad as possible in the
[...] initial phase, and no hypotheses were formulated or [...]
De gekozen afschrijvingsperiode, die
[...]
niet langer mag zijn dan 20 jaar,
[...] weerspiegelt dan dehypothesenen doelstellingen [...]
die bij de aanschaffing werden nagestreefd.
The write-down period, which may not exceed 20 years,
[...] reflects the assumptions and objectives [...]
governing the acquisition.
10 Deze cijfers zijn dus in belangrijke mate gelijklopend met dehypothesenwaarvan is uitgegaan bij dit stabiliteitsprogramma.
10 These figures are therefore highly similar to the scenarios adopted in the framework of this stability programme.
Om geen relevante aspecten over het hoofd te zien is het onderzoek in de beginfase zo breed mogelijk gehouden, met uitzondering van het door
[...]
de Raad uitgesloten onderzoek naar de
[...] gevolgenbestrijding, en zijn geenhypothesengeformuleerd of [...]
In order to avoid missing any relevant aspects, the investigation was kept as broad as possible in the initial stages, with the exception of the investigation into the
[...]
aspect of tackling consequences, excluded by the Board;
[...] in addition, no hypotheses were formulated [...]
Hoewel dezehypothesengebaseerd zijn op de recentste informatie die voorhanden is, kan het toch gebeuren dat de reële resultaten afwijken van de [...]
Although these estimates are based on the best information available to the management, actual results may ultimately differ from those estimates.
Deze aanvulling bevat een herziening van de macro-economischehypothesenen gegevens die leidt tot een bijgewerkt begrotingstraject.
This supplement included a revision of the assumptions and macroeconomic data, leading to an update of the budgetary trajectory.
Samen met informatie over de geografische verspreiding in tijd en ruimte wordenhypothesengeformuleerd over soortvorming en de consequenties voor de bescherming van biodiversiteit.
Together with data on geographic distributions in time and space, hypotheses about diversification (speciation) and their implications for conservation and biodiversity are formulated.
Er moet een duidelijk onderscheid worden gemaakt tussen, enerzijds,hypothesenbetreffende factoren die de leden van de bestuurs-, leidinggevende of toezichthoudende organen kunnen beïnvloeden en, anderzijds,hypothesenbetreffende factoren waarop de leden van de bestuurs-, leidinggevende of toezichthoudende organen totaal geen invloed kunnen uitoefenen; dehypothesenmoeten voorts gemakkelijk te begrijpen zijn door beleggers, zij moeten specifiek en precies zijn [...] [...]
en zij mogen geen invloed hebben op de algemene nauwkeurigheid van de ramingen die aan de prognose ten grondslag liggen.
There must be a clear distinction between assumptions about factors which the members of the administrative, management or supervisory bodies can influence and assumptions about factors which are exclusively outside the influence of the members of the administrative, management or supervisory bodies; the assumptions must be readily understandable by investors, be specific and precise and not relate to the general accuracy of the estimates underlying the forecast.
In dit verband kan actie-onderzoek
[...]
worden opgevat als vorm van toetsend
[...] onderzoek: men toetsthypothesenover (on)mogelijkheden [...]
door te proberen deze te realiseren.
Within this scope, action research can be regarded as a form of
[...] assessment research: hypotheses about (im)possiblities [...]
are assessed by trying to realise them.
Omdat vermoeiing en slijtage afhangen van de duur en intensiteit van het
[...]
machinegebruik, moeten berekeningen daarvan
[...] gebaseerd zijn ophypothesenbetreffende de [...]
levensduur van de machine, zoals bijvoorbeeld
[...]
een aantal bedrijfsuren of gebruikscycli.
Since fatigue and wear depend on the duration and the intensity
[...]
of use of machinery, the calculations
[...] must be based on hypotheses relating to the [...]
lifetime of the machinery, such as, for
[...]
example, a number of hours of operation or of operational cycles.
Er van uitgaande, dat mijnhypothesenerkend worden, [...]
zeg ik dat de aanleg tot (over-)bevolking oneindig veel groter is dan
[...]
het vermogen van de aarde om bestaansmiddelen voor de mens te leveren.
Assuming then, my postulata as granted, I say, [...]
that the power of population is indefinitely greater than the power in the
[...]
earth to produce subsistence for man.
Alle keuzes enhypothesenvoor de meting van het renterisico [...]
in het model zijn in principe gebaseerd op economische variabelen en verwachtingen.
All choices and assumptions for measuring interest rate [...]
risk in the model are in principle based on economic variables and expectations.
De voorbereiding van de geconsolideerde jaarrekening vergt, van de directie, de opstelling van ramingen en het gebruik vanhypothesendie het bedrag van de opbrengsten, de uitgaven, de activa en de passiva, alsook de latente activa en passiva, op balansdatum beïnvloeden.
The preparation of the consolidated financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of revenue, expenses, assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements.
Het kan in tweehypothesenworden aangewend, namelijk [...]
wanneer de rechter weigert een norm toe te passen wegens de on(grond)wettigheid
[...]
ervan (en dan is rechtstreeks beroep bij het Tribunal Constitucional mogelijk en voor het openbaar ministerie zelfs verplicht) en wanneer de rechter de norm, ondanks het (grond)wettigheidsbezwaar van de partijen, toch toepast, in welk geval de uitputting van de rechtsmiddelen is vereist vooraleer men zich tot het Tribunal Constitucional kan wenden.
It can be used in two hypotheses, namely if a court [...]
refuses to enforce a regulation on account of it being unconstitutional
[...]
or unlawful (in which case direct appeal to the Constitutional Court is possible and for the public prosecutor even mandatory), and if a court enforces a regulation despite the constitutionality or legality objection of the parties, in which case exhaustion of the legal remedies is required before the Constitutional Court can be accessed.
[...] vertaald naarhypothesenover de financiële [...]
handel en wandel van terroristen.
These characteristics were then
[...] translated into hypotheses about the financial [...]
wheeling and dealing of terrorists.
Het kwantitatief inschatten van de impact, op de Belgische economie, van de strijd tegen de
[...] klimaatverandering vergt heel wathypothesen.
Estimating the impact of the fight against climate change on the Belgian economy requires to
[...] formulate a number of hypotheses.
De toegepastehypothesenzouden natuurlijk [...]
transparant gemaakt moeten worden.
[...] assumptions made for this would also need [...]
to be shown transparently.
Hij moet geformaliseerd worden aan de hand van richtlijnen die gevolgd moeten worden
[...]
voor het expliciteren van de in het
[...] onderzoek gehanteerdehypothesen,wetenschappelijke [...]
onzekerheden en beperkingen van de resultaten.
The interface must be formally established, with guidelines for making
[...] explicit the assumptions used in research, [...]
the scientific uncertainties and the limitations of results.
Hierbij moet worden aangetekend dat de voor het ontwerp van de machine gebruiktehypothesenin overeenstemming moeten zijn met de aanwijzingen van de fabrikant inzake het type en de frequentie van inspecties en preventief onderhoud van de machine en inzake de criteria voor aan slijtage onderhevige onderdelen – zie §207: toelichting bij punt 1.3.2, en §272: toelichting bij punt 1.7.4.2, [...]
It should be noted that the hypotheses used for the design of the machinery must be consistent with the instructions given by the manufacturer on the type and frequency of inspections and preventive maintenance of the machinery and on the criteria for the replacement of parts subject to wear – see §207: comments on section 1.3.2, and §272: comments on section 1.7.4.2 (r) of Annex I.
De Comissies zijn gestart met het verzamelen van alle publicaties van de heer Stapel, verschenen in de
[...]
periode 1993 t/m 2011, inclusief beschikbare datasets, vragenlijsten,
[...] stimulusmateriaal,hypothesenen mailwisselingen.
The Committees started by collecting all Mr Stapel’s publications published in the period from
[...]
1993 to 2011, including all available datasets, questionnaires, stimulus
[...] material, hypotheses and e-mail correspondence.
Deze Relatieve Waardevorken steunen op een
[...] aantal ramingen enhypothesendie, hoewel beschouwd als redelijk, onderhevig kunnen zijn aan belangrijke bedrijfsgebonden, financiële, economische en andere onzekerheden en bijgevolg niet kunnen worden beschouwd als een garantie door Fortis Bank dat deze ramingen enhypothesencorrect of accuraat zijn.
These Relative Value Ranges are based on a
[...] number of estimates and hypotheses which, though regarded as reasonable, may be subject to considerable business-related, financial, economic and other uncertainties and hence may not be regarded as a guarantee on the part of Fortis Bank that such estimates and hypotheses are correct or accurate.
[...] schattingen enhypothesendie gebruikt werden [...]
bij het opstellen van deze jaarrekening zijn, waar van
[...]
toepassing, consistent met het laatst goedgekeurde budget/langetermijn plan.
[...] estimates and assumptions that are used [...]
in preparing the financial statements are consistent with bpost’s
[...]
latest approved budget / long-term plan projections, where applicable.
Zelfversterkende dynamieken: Als vele financiële
[...] [...] instellingen dezelfde risicomodellen gebruiken, die gebaseerd zijn op gelijkaardige (potentieel verkeerde)hypothesen,zullen die instellingen dezelfde signalen ontvangen om over te gaan tot leveraging en deleveraging.
Self-enforcing dynamics: If many financial institutions use the same risk models, based on similar (potentially flawed) assumptions, these institutions will receive the same leveraging and deleveraging signals.
Doordat alle belanghebbende partijen de
[...] [...] onderzoekshypothesen na nauwgezet onderzoek hebben bekrachtigd, hebben wij ons ervan kunnen verzekeren dat dezehypothesende belangrijkste dilemma's en vragen weerspiegelden die zich in de gemeenschap van de instellingen die op dit [...] [...]
gebied werkzaam zijn voordoen.
In fact the careful validation of the research hypotheses by all stakeholders allowed us to be confident that they indeed took up the principal challenges and questions facing the institutional community working in this domain.
Een kwantificering van de gevolgen van
[...]
de klimaatverandering wordt voorts bemoeilijkt doordat ze onvermijdelijk gesteund is op een
[...] aantal technischehypothesen.
Quantifying the impact of climate change is made even harder by the fact that the process is necessarily based on a
[...] number of technical assumptions.
[...] gehad voor een analyse van de politieke economie van deze processen (hoewel die erg interessant zou zijn), maar hebben in de bevestiging van dehypothesengemerkt dat de gewapende partijen voornamelijk economische redenen hebben om daden van geweld te plegen.
Whilst the team has been unable to carry out a full political economy analysis (which certainly would be of interest), the prevalence of economic motivations by armed groups involved in the violence was noted during the validation process for the hypothesis.

By Science Buddies on February 23, 2010 9:23 AM


"If _____[I do this] _____, then _____[this]_____ will happen."


Sound familiar? It should. This formulaic approach to making a statement about what you "think" will happen is the basis of most science fair projects and much scientific exploration.

Step by Step
You can see from the basic outline of the Scientific Method below that writing your hypothesis comes early in the process:
  1. Ask a Question
  2. Do Background Research
  3. Construct a Hypothesis
  4. Test Your Hypothesis by Doing an Experiment
  5. Analyze Your Data and Draw a Conclusion
  6. Communicate Your Results

Following the scientific method, we come up with a question that we want to answer, we do some initial research, and then before we set out to answer the question by performing an experiment and observing what happens, we first clearly identify what we "think" will happen.

We make an "educated guess."

We write a hypothesis.

We set out to prove or disprove the hypothesis.

What you "think" will happen, of course, should be based on your preliminary research and your understanding of the science and scientific principles involved in your proposed experiment or study. In other words, you don't simply "guess." You're not taking a shot in the dark. You're not pulling your statement out of thin air. Instead, you make an "educated guess" based on what you already know and what you have already learned from your research.

If you keep in mind the format of a well-constructed hypothesis, you should find that writing your hypothesis is not difficult to do. You'll also find that in order to write a solid hypothesis, you need to understand what your variables are for your project. It's all connected!

If I never water my plant, it will dry out and die.

That seems like an obvious statement, right? The above hypothesis is too simplistic for most middle- to upper-grade science projects, however. As you work on deciding what question you will explore, you should be looking for something for which the answer is not already obvious or already known (to you). When you write your hypothesis, it should be based on your "educated guess" not on known data. Similarly, the hypothesis should be written before you begin your experimental procedures—not after the fact.



Hypotheses Tips

Our staff scientists offer the following tips for thinking about and writing good hypotheses.

  • The question comes first. Before you make a hypothesis, you have to clearly identify the question you are interested in studying.
  • A hypothesis is a statement, not a question. Your hypothesis is not the scientific question in your project. The hypothesis is an educated, testable prediction about what will happen.
  • Make it clear. A good hypothesis is written in clear and simple language. Reading your hypothesis should tell a teacher or judge exactly what you thought was going to happen when you started your project.
  • Keep the variables in mind. A good hypothesis defines the variables in easy-to-measure terms, like who the participants are, what changes during the testing, and what the effect of the changes will be. (For more information about identifying variables, see: Variables in Your Science Fair Project.)
  • Make sure your hypothesis is "testable." To prove or disprove your hypothesis, you need to be able to do an experiment and take measurements or make observations to see how two things (your variables) are related. You should also be able to repeat your experiment over and over again, if necessary.

    To create a "testable" hypothesis make sure you have done all of these things:

    • Thought about what experiments you will need to carry out to do the test.
    • Identified the variables in the project.
    • Included the independent and dependent variables in the hypothesis statement. (This helps ensure that your statement is specific enough.
  • Do your research. You may find many studies similar to yours have already been conducted. What you learn from available research and data can help you shape your project and hypothesis.
  • Don't bite off more than you can chew! Answering some scientific questions can involve more than one experiment, each with its own hypothesis. Make sure your hypothesis is a specific statement relating to a single experiment.


Putting it in Action

To help demonstrate the above principles and techniques for developing and writing solid, specific, and testable hypotheses, Sandra and Kristin, two of our staff scientists, offer the following good and bad examples.

Good HypothesisPoor Hypothesis
When there is less oxygen in the water, rainbow trout suffer more lice.

Kristin says: "This hypothesis is good because it is testable, simple, written as a statement, and establishes the participants (trout), variables (oxygen in water, and numbers of lice), and predicts effect (as oxygen levels go down, the numbers of lice go up)."

Our universe is surrounded by another, larger universe, with which we can have absolutely no contact.

Kristin says: "This statement may or may not be true, but it is not a scientific hypothesis. By its very nature, it is not testable. There are no observations that a scientist can make to tell whether or not the hypothesis is correct. This statement is speculation, not a hypothesis."

Aphid-infected plants that are exposed to ladybugs will have fewer aphids after a week than aphid-infected plants which are left untreated.

Sandra says: "This hypothesis gives a clear indication of what is to be tested (the ability of ladybugs to curb an aphid infestation), is a manageable size for a single experiment, mentions the independent variable (ladybugs) and the dependent variable (number of aphids), and predicts the effect (exposure to ladybugs reduces the number of aphids)."

Ladybugs are a good natural pesticide for treating aphid infected plants.

Sandra says: "This statement is not 'bite size.' Whether or not something is a 'good natural pesticide' is too vague for a science fair project. There is no clear indication of what will be measured to evaluate the prediction."



Hypotheses in History

Throughout history, scientists have posed hypotheses and then set out to prove or disprove them. Staff Scientist Dave reminds that scientific experiments become a dialogue between and among scientists and that hypotheses are rarely (if ever) "eternal." In other words, even a hypothesis that is proven true may be displaced by the next set of research on a similar topic, whether that research appears a month or a hundred years later.

A look at the work of Sir Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein, more than 100 years apart, shows good hypothesis-writing in action.

As Dave explains, "A hypothesis is a possible explanation for something that is observed in nature. For example, it is a common observation that objects that are thrown into the air fall toward the earth. Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727) put forth a hypothesis to explain this observation, which might be stated as 'objects with mass attract each other through a gravitational field.'"

Newton's hypothesis demonstrates the techniques for writing a good hypothesis: It is testable. It is simple. It is universal. It allows for predictions that will occur in new circumstances. It builds upon previously accumulated knowledge (e.g., Newton's work explained the observed orbits of the planets).

"As it turns out, despite its incredible explanatory power, Newton's hypothesis was wrong," says Dave. "Albert Einstein (1879-1955) provided a hypothesis that is closer to the truth, which can be stated as 'objects with mass cause space to bend.' This hypothesis discards the idea of a gravitational field and introduces the concept of space as bendable. Like Newton's hypothesis, the one offered by Einstein has all of the characteristics of a good hypothesis."

"Like all scientific ideas and explanations," says Dave, "hypotheses are all partial and temporary, lasting just until a better one comes along."

That's good news for scientists of all ages. There are always questions to answer and educated guesses to make!



If your science fair is over, leave a comment here to let us know what your hypothesis was for your project.

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