For other uses, see Organisation Todt § Administrative units.
The Einsatzgruppen operated under the administration of the Schutzstaffel (SS)
Killing of Jews at Ivanhorod, Ukraine, 1942. A woman is attempting to protect a child with her own body just before they are fired on with rifles at close range.
|Headquarters||RSHA, Prinz-Albrecht-Straße, Berlin|
52°30′26″N13°22′57″E / 52.50722°N 13.38250°E / 52.50722; 13.38250
|Employees||c. 3,000 (1941)|
|Parent agency||Allgemeine SS and RSHA|
Einsatzgruppen (German:[ˈʔaɪnzatsˌɡʁʊpn̩], "task forces" or "deployment groups") were Schutzstaffel (SS) paramilitary death squads of Nazi Germany that were responsible for mass killings, primarily by shooting, during World War II. The Einsatzgruppen were involved in the murder of much of the intelligentsia and cultural elite of Poland, and had an integral role in the implementation of the so-called "Final Solution to the Jewish question" (Die Endlösung der Judenfrage) in territories conquered by Nazi Germany. Almost all of the people they killed were civilians, beginning with the intelligentsia and swiftly progressing to Soviet political commissars, Jews, and Gypsies throughout Eastern Europe.
Under the direction of Reichsführer-SSHeinrich Himmler and the supervision of SS-ObergruppenführerReinhard Heydrich, the Einsatzgruppen operated in territories occupied by the German armed forces following the invasion of Poland in September 1939 and Operation Barbarossa (the invasion of the Soviet Union) in June 1941. The Einsatzgruppen worked hand-in-hand with the Orpo Police Battalions on the Eastern Front to carry out operations ranging from the murder of a few people to operations which lasted over two or more days, such as the massacre at Babi Yar with 33,771 Jews killed in two days, and the Rumbula massacre (with about 25,000 killed in two days of shooting). As ordered by Nazi leader Adolf Hitler, the Wehrmacht cooperated with the Einsatzgruppen and provided logistical support for their operations. Historian Raul Hilberg estimates that between 1941 and 1945 the Einsatzgruppen and related auxiliary troops killed more than two million people, including 1.3 million Jews. The total number of Jews murdered during the Holocaust is estimated at 5.5 to 6 million people.
After the close of World War II, 24 senior leaders of the Einsatzgruppen were prosecuted in the Einsatzgruppen Trial in 1947–48, charged with crimes against humanity and war crimes. Fourteen death sentences and two life sentences were handed out. Four additional Einsatzgruppe leaders were later tried and executed by other nations.
Formation and Action T4
The Einsatzgruppen were formed under the direction of SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich and operated by the Schutzstaffel (SS) before and during World War II. The Einsatzgruppen had its origins in the ad hoc Einsatzkommando formed by Heydrich to secure government buildings and documents following the Anschluss in Austria in March 1938. Originally part of the Sicherheitspolizei (Security Police; SiPo), two units of Einsatzgruppen were stationed in the Sudetenland in October 1938. When military action turned out not to be necessary because of the Munich Agreement, the Einsatzgruppen were assigned to confiscate government papers and police documents. They also secured government buildings, questioned senior civil servants, and arrested as many as 10,000 Czech communists and German citizens. From September 1939, the Reichssicherheitshauptamt (Reich Main Security Office; RSHA) had overall command of the Einsatzgruppen.
As part of the drive to remove "undesirable" elements from the German population, from September to December 1939 the Einsatzgruppen and others took part in Action T4, a programme of systematic murder of the physically and mentally handicapped and psychiatric hospital patients undertaken by the Nazi regime. Action T4 mainly took place from 1939 to 1941, but continued until the end of the war. Initially the victims were shot by the Einsatzgruppen and others, but gas chambers were put into use by spring 1940.
Invasion of Poland
Main articles: Intelligenzaktion and Operation Tannenberg
In response to Führer und ReichskanzlerAdolf Hitler's plan to invade Poland, Heydrich re-formed the Einsatzgruppen to travel in the wake of the German armies. Membership at this point was drawn from the SS, the Sicherheitsdienst (Security Service; SD), and the police. Heydrich placed SS-ObergruppenführerWerner Best in command, who chose leaders for the task forces and their subgroups, called Einsatzkommandos, from among educated people with military experience. Some had previously been members of paramilitary groups such as the Freikorps.
Numbering some 2,700 men at this point, the Einsatzgruppen's mission was the forceful de-politicisation of the Polish people and the elimination of groups most clearly identified with Polish national identity: the intelligentsia, members of the clergy, teachers, and members of the nobility. As stated by Hitler: "... there must be no Polish leaders; where Polish leaders exist they must be killed, however harsh that sounds". The Sonderfahndungsbuch Polen — lists of people to be killed — had been drawn up by the SS as early as May 1939. The Einsatzgruppen performed these murders with the support of the Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz, a paramilitary group consisting of ethnic Germans living in Poland. Members of the SS, the Wehrmacht, and the Ordnungspolizei (Order Police; Orpo) also shot civilians during the Polish campaign. Approximately 65,000 civilians were killed by the end of 1939. In addition to leaders of Polish society, they killed Jews, prostitutes, Romani people, and the mentally ill. Psychiatric patients in Poland were initially killed by shooting, but by spring 1941 gas vans were widely used.
Seven Einsatzgruppen of battalion strength operated in Poland. Each was subdivided into four Einsatzkommandos of company strength.
- Einsatzgruppe I, commanded by SS-StandartenführerBruno Streckenbach, acted with 14th Army
- Einsatzgruppe II, SS-ObersturmbannführerEmanuel Schäfer, acted with 10th Army
- Einsatzgruppe III, SS-Obersturmbannführer und Regierungsrat Dr. Herbert Fischer, acted with 8th Army
- Einsatzgruppe IV, SS-BrigadeführerLothar Beutel, acted with 4th Army
- Einsatzgruppe V, SS-StandartenfürerErnst Damzog, acted with 3rd Army
- Einsatzgruppe VI, SS-OberführerErich Naumann, acted in Wielkopolska
- Einsatzgruppe VII, SS-ObergruppenführerUdo von Woyrsch and SS-GruppenführerOtto Rasch, acted in Upper Silesia and Cieszyn Silesia
Though they were formally under the command of the army, the Einsatzgruppen received their orders directly from Heydrich and for the most part acted independently of the army. Many senior army officers were only too glad to leave these genocidal actions to the task forces, as the killings violated the rules of warfare as set down in the Geneva Conventions. However, Hitler had decreed that the army would have to tolerate and even offer logistical support to the Einsatzgruppen when it was tactically possible to do so. Some army commanders complained about unauthorised shootings, looting, and rapes committed by members of the Einsatzgruppen and the Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz, to little effect. For example, when GeneraloberstJohannes Blaskowitz sent a memorandum of complaint to Hitler about the atrocities, Hitler dismissed his concerns as "childish", and Blaskowitz was relieved of his post in May 1940. He continued to serve in the army but never received promotion to field marshal.
The final task of the Einsatzgruppen in Poland was to round up the remaining Jews and concentrate them in ghettos within major cities with good railway connections. The intention was to eventually remove all the Jews from Poland, but at this point their final destination had not yet been determined. Together, the Wehrmacht and the Einsatzgruppen also drove tens of thousands of Jews eastward into Soviet-controlled territory.
Preparations for Operation Barbarossa
Main articles: The Holocaust in Belarus, The Holocaust in Ukraine, and The Holocaust in Russia
On 13 March 1941, in the lead-up to Operation Barbarossa, the planned invasion of the Soviet Union, Hitler dictated his "Guidelines in Special Spheres re: Directive No. 21 (Operation Barbarossa)". Sub-paragraph B specified that Reichsführer-SSHeinrich Himmler would be given "special tasks" on direct orders from the Führer, which he would carry out independently. This directive was intended to prevent friction between the Wehrmacht and the SS in the upcoming offensive. Hitler also specified that criminal acts against civilians perpetrated by members of the Wehrmacht during the upcoming campaign would not be prosecuted in the military courts, and thus would go unpunished.
In a speech to his leading generals on 30 March 1941, Hitler described his envisioned war against the Soviet Union. General Franz Halder, the Army's Chief of Staff, described the speech:
Struggle between two ideologies. Scathing evaluation of Bolshevism, equals antisocial criminality. Communism immense future danger ... This a fight to the finish. If we do not accept this, we shall beat the enemy, but in thirty years we shall again confront the Communist foe. We don't make war to preserve the enemy ... Struggle against Russia: Extermination of Bolshevik Commissars and of the Communist intelligentsia ... Commissars and GPU personnel are criminals and must be treated as such. The struggle will differ from that in the west. In the east harshness now means mildness for the future.
Though General Halder did not record any mention of Jews, German historian Andreas Hillgruber argued that because of Hitler's frequent contemporary statements about the coming war of annihilation against "Judeo-Bolshevism", his generals would have understood Hitler's call for the destruction of the Soviet Union as also comprising a call for the destruction of its Jewish population. The genocide was often described using euphemisms such as "special tasks" and "executive measures"; Einsatzgruppe victims were often described as having been shot while trying to escape. In May 1941, Heydrich verbally passed on the order to kill the Soviet Jews to the SiPo NCO School in Pretzsch, where the commanders of the reorganised Einsatzgruppen were being trained for Operation Barbarossa. In spring 1941, Heydrich and the First Quartermaster of the Wehrmacht Heer, General Eduard Wagner, successfully completed negotiations for co-operation between the Einsatzgruppen and the German Army to allow the implementation of the "special tasks". Following the Heydrich-Wagner agreement on 28 April 1941, Field Marshal Walther von Brauchitsch ordered that when Operation Barbarossa began, all German Army commanders were to immediately identify and register all Jews in occupied areas in the Soviet Union, and fully co-operate with the Einsatzgruppen.
In further meetings held in June 1941 Himmler outlined to top SS leaders the regime's intention to reduce the population of the Soviet Union by 30 million people, not only through direct killing of those considered racially inferior, but by depriving the remainder of food and other necessities of life.
Organisation starting in 1941
Further information: List of Einsatzgruppen
For Operation Barbarossa, initially four Einsatzgruppen were created, each numbering 500–990 men to comprise a total force of 3,000.Einsatzgruppen A, B, and C were to be attached to Army Groups North, Centre, and South; Einsatzgruppe D was assigned to the 11th Army. The Einsatzgruppe for Special Purposes operated in eastern Poland starting in July 1941. The Einsatzgruppen were under the control of the RSHA, headed by Heydrich and later by his successor, SS-ObergruppenführerErnst Kaltenbrunner. Heydrich gave them a mandate to secure the offices and papers of the Soviet state and Communist Party; to liquidate all the higher cadres of the Soviet state; and to instigate and encourage pogroms against Jewish populations. The men of the Einsatzgruppen were recruited from the SD, Gestapo, Kriminalpolizei (Kripo), Orpo, and Waffen-SS. Each Einsatzgruppe was under the operational control of the Higher SS Police Chiefs in its area of operations. In May 1941, General Wagner and SS-BrigadeführerWalter Schellenberg agreed that the Einsatzgruppen in front-line areas were to operate under army command, while the army provided the Einsatzgruppen with all necessary logistical support.
Heydrich acted under orders from Reichsführer-SS Himmler, who supplied security forces on an "as needed" basis to the local SS and Police Leaders. Led by SD, Gestapo, and Kripo officers, Einsatzgruppen included recruits from the Orpo, Security Service and Waffen-SS, augmented by uniformed volunteers from the local auxiliary police force. Each Einsatzgruppe was supplemented with a reserve battalion of Orpos and Waffen-SS as well as support personnel such as drivers and radio operators. On average, the Orpo formations were larger and better armed, with heavy machine-gun detachments, which enabled them to carry out operations beyond the capability of the SS. Each death squad followed an assigned army group as they advanced into the Soviet Union. During the course of their operations, the Einsatzgruppen commanders received assistance from the Wehrmacht. Activities ranged from the murder of targeted groups of individuals named on carefully prepared lists, to joint city-wide operations with SS Einsatzgruppen which lasted for two or more days, such as the massacres at Babi Yar, perpetrated by the Orpo Reserve Battalion 45, and at Rumbula, by Battalion 22, reinforced by local Schutzmannschaften (auxiliary police). The SS brigades, wrote historian Christopher Browning, were "only the thin cutting edge of German units that became involved in political and racial mass murder."
Many Einsatzgruppe leaders were highly educated; for example, nine of seventeen leaders of Einsatzgruppe A held doctorate degrees. Three Einsatzgruppen were commanded by holders of doctorates, one of whom (SS-GruppenführerOtto Rasch) held a double doctorate.
Additional Einsatzgruppen were created as additional territory was conquered. Einsatzgruppe E operated in Independent State of Croatia under three commanders, SS-Obersturmbannführer Ludwig Teichmann, SS-Standartenführer Günther Herrmann, and lastly SS-StandartenführerWilhelm Fuchs. The unit was subdivided into five Einsatzkommandos located in Vinkovci, Sarajevo, Banja Luka, Knin, and Zagreb.Einsatzgruppe F worked with Army Group South.Einsatzgruppe G operated in Romania, Hungary, and Ukraine, commanded by SS-Standartenführer Dr. Josef Kreuzer.Einsatzgruppe H was assigned to Slovakia.Einsatzgruppen K and L, under SS-Oberführer Dr. Emanuel Schäfer and SS-Standartenführer Dr. Ludwig Hahn, worked alongside 5th and 6th Panzer Armies during the Ardennes offensive. Hahn had previously been in command of Einsatzgruppe Griechenland in Greece.
Other Einsatzgruppen and Einsatzkommandos included Einsatzgruppe Iltis (operated in Carinthia, on the border between Slovenia and Austria) under SS-StandartenführerPaul Blobel,Einsatzgruppe Jugoslawien (Yugoslavia)Einsatzkommando Luxemburg (Luxembourg),Einsatzgruppe Norwegen (Norway) commanded by SS-Oberführer Dr. Franz Walter Stahlecker,Einsatzgruppe Serbien (Yugoslavia) under SS-StandartenführerWilhelm Fuchs and SS-Gruppenführer August Meysner,Einsatzkommando Tilsit (Lithuania, Poland), and Einsatzgruppe Tunis (Tunis), commanded by SS-ObersturmbannführerWalter Rauff.
Killings in the Soviet Union
After the invasion of the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941, the Einsatzgruppen's main assignment was to kill civilians, as in Poland, but this time its targets specifically included Soviet Communist Partycommissars and Jews. In a letter dated 2 July 1941 Heydrich communicated to his SS and Police Leaders that the Einsatzgruppen were to execute all senior and middle ranking Comintern officials; all senior and middle ranking members of the central, provincial, and district committees of the Communist Party; extremist and radical Communist Party members; people's commissars; and Jews in party and government posts. Open-ended instructions were given to execute "other radical elements (saboteurs, propagandists, snipers, assassins, agitators, etc.)." He instructed that any pogroms spontaneously initiated by the occupants of the conquered territories were to be quietly encouraged.
On 8 July, Heydrich announced that all Jews were to be regarded as partisans, and gave the order for all male Jews between the ages of 15 and 45 to be shot. On 17 July Heydrich ordered that the Einsatzgruppen were to kill all Jewish Red Army prisoners of war, plus all Red Army prisoners of war from Georgia and Central Asia, as they too might be Jews. Unlike in Germany, where the Nuremberg Laws of 1935 defined as Jewish anyone with at least three Jewish grandparents, the Einsatzgruppen defined as Jewish anyone with at least one Jewish grandparent; in either case, whether or not the person practised the religion was irrelevant. The unit was also assigned to exterminate Romani people and the mentally ill. It was common practice for the Einsatzgruppen to shoot hostages.
As the invasion began, the Germans pursued the fleeing Red Army, leaving a security vacuum. Reports surfaced of Soviet guerrilla activity in the area, with local Jews immediately suspected of collaboration. Heydrich ordered his officers to incite anti-Jewish pogroms in the newly occupied territories. Pogroms, some of which were orchestrated by the Einsatzgruppen, broke out in Latvia, Lithuania, and Ukraine. Within the first few weeks of Operation Barbarossa, 40 pogroms led to the deaths of 10,000 Jews, and by the end of 1941 some 60 pogroms had taken place, claiming as many as 24,000 victims. However, SS-BrigadeführerFranz Walter Stahlecker, commander of Einstazgruppe A, reported to his superiors in mid-October that the residents of Kaunas were not spontaneously starting pogroms, and secret assistance by the Germans was required. A similar reticence was noted by Einsatzgruppe B in Russia and Belarus and Einsatzgruppe C in Ukraine; the further east the Einsatzgruppen travelled, the less likely the residents were to be prompted into killing their Jewish neighbours.
All four main Einsatzgruppen took part in mass shootings from the early days of the war. Initially the targets were adult Jewish men, but by August the net had been widened to include women, children, and the elderly—the entire Jewish population. Initially there was a semblance of legality given to the shootings, with trumped-up charges being read out (arson, sabotage, black marketeering, or refusal to work, for example) and victims being killed by a firing squad. As this method proved too slow, the Einsatzkommandos began to take their victims out in larger groups and shot them next to, or even inside, mass graves that had been prepared. Some Einsatzkommandos started to use automatic weapons, with survivors being killed with a pistol shot.
As word of the massacres got out, many Jews fled; in Ukraine, 70 to 90 per cent of the Jews ran away. This was seen by the leader of Einsatzkommando VI as beneficial, as it would save the regime the costs of deporting the victims further east over the Urals. In other areas the invasion was so successful that the Einsatzgruppen had insufficient forces to immediately kill all the Jews in the conquered territories. A situation report from Einsatzgruppe C in September 1941 noted that not all Jews were members of the Bolshevist apparatus, and suggested that the total elimination of Jewry would have a negative impact on the economy and the food supply. The Nazis began to round their victims up into concentration camps and ghettos and rural districts were for the most part rendered Judenfrei (free of Jews). Jewish councils were set up in major cities and forced labour gangs were established to make use of the Jews as slave labour until they were totally eliminated, a goal that was postponed until 1942.
Einsatzgruppen used public hangings as a terror tactic on the local population. An Einsatzgruppe B report, dated 9 October 1941, described one such hanging. Due to suspected partisan activity near Demidov, all male residents aged 15 to 55 were put in a camp to be screened. The screening produced seventeen people identified as "partisans" and "Communists". Five members of the group were hanged while 400 local residents were assembled to watch; the rest were shot.
Main article: Babi Yar
The largest mass shooting perpetrated by the Einsatzgruppen took place on 29 and 30 September 1941 at Babi Yar, a ravine northwest of Kiev, a city in Ukraine that had fallen to the Germans on 19 September. The perpetrators included a company of Waffen-SS attached to Einsatzgruppe C under Rasch, members of Sonderkommando 4a under SS-ObergruppenführerFriedrich Jeckeln, and some Ukrainian auxiliary police. The Jews of Kiev were told to report to a certain street corner on 29 September; anyone who disobeyed would be shot. Since word of massacres in other areas had not yet reached Kiev and the assembly point was near the train station, they assumed they were being deported. People showed up at the rendezvous point in large numbers, laden with possessions and food for the journey.
After being marched two miles north-west of the city centre, the victims encountered a barbed wire barrier and numerous Ukrainian police and German troops. Thirty or forty people at a time were told to leave their possessions and were escorted through a narrow passageway lined with soldiers brandishing clubs. Anyone who tried to escape was beaten. Soon the victims reached an open area, where they were forced to strip, and then were herded down into the ravine. People were forced to lie down in rows on top of the bodies of other victims, and they were shot in the back of the head or the neck by members of the execution squads.
The murders continued for two days, claiming a total of 33,771 victims. Sand was shovelled and bulldozed over the bodies and the sides of the ravine were dynamited to bring down more material. Anton Heidborn, a member of Sonderkommando 4a, later testified that three days later that there were still people alive among the corpses. Heidborn spent the next few days helping smooth out the "millions" of banknotes taken from the victims' possessions. The clothing was taken away, destined to be re-used by German citizens. Jeckeln's troops shot more than 100,000 Jews by the end of October.
Killings in the Baltic states
Main articles: The Holocaust in Lithuania, The Holocaust in Latvia, and The Holocaust in Estonia
Einsatzgruppe A operated in the formerly Soviet-occupied Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. According to its own reports to Himmler, Einsatzgruppe A killed almost 140,000 people in the five months following the invasion: 136,421 Jews, 1,064 Communists, 653 people with mental illnesses, 56 partisans, 44 Poles, five Gypsies, and one Armenian were reported killed between 22 June and 25 November 1941.
Upon entering Kaunas, Lithuania, on 25 June 1941, the Einsatzgruppe released the criminals from the local jail and encouraged them to join the pogrom which was underway. Between 23–27 June 1941, 4,000 Jews were killed on the streets of Kaunas and in nearby open pits and ditches. Particularly active in the Kaunas pogrom was the so-called "Death Dealer of Kaunas", a young man who murdered Jews with a crowbar at the Lietukis Garage before a large crowd that cheered each killing with much applause; he occasionally paused to play the Lithuanian national anthem "Tautiška giesmė" on his accordion before resuming the killings.
As Einsatzgruppe A advanced into Lithuania, it actively recruited local nationalists and antisemitic groups. In July 1941, members of the Baltaraisciai movement joined the massacres. A pogrom in Riga in early July killed 400 Jews. Latvian nationalist Viktors Arājs and his supporters undertook a campaign of arson against synagogues. On 2 July, Einsatzgruppe A commander Stahlecker appointed Arājs to head the Arajs Kommando, a Sonderkommando of about 300 men, mostly university students. Together, Einsatzgruppe A and the Arājs Kommando killed 2,300 Jews in Riga on 6–7 July. Within six months, Arājs and his men would kill about half of Latvia's Jewish population.
Local officials, the Selbstschutz, and the Hilfspolizei (Auxiliary Police) played a key role in rounding up and massacring Jewish Lithuanians, Latvians, and Estonians. These groups helped the Einsatzgruppen and other killing units to quickly identify Jews. The Hilfspolizei, consisting of auxiliary police organised by the Germans and recruited from former Latvian Army and police officers, ex-Aizsargi, members of the Pērkonkrusts, and university students, assisted in the murder of Latvia's Jewish citizens. Similar units were created elsewhere, and provided much of the manpower for the Holocaust in Eastern Europe.
With the creation of units such as the Arājs Kommando and the Rollkommando Hamann in Lithuania, the attacks changed from the spontaneous mob violence of the pogroms to more systematic massacres. With extensive local help, Einsatzgruppe A was the first Einsatzgruppe to attempt to systematically exterminate all the Jews in its area. Latvian historian Modris Eksteins wrote:
Of the roughly 83,000 Jews who fell into German hands in Latvia, not more than 900 survived; and of the more than 20,000 Western Jews sent into Latvia, only some 800 lived through the deportation until liberation. This was the highest percentage of eradication in all of Europe.
In late 1941, the Einsatzkommandos settled into headquarters in Kovno, Riga, and Tallinn. Einsatzgruppe A grew less mobile and faced problems because of its small size. The Germans relied increasingly on the Arājs Kommando and similar groups to perform massacres of Jews.
Such extensive and enthusiastic collaboration with the Einsatzgruppen has been attributed to several factors. Since the Russian Revolution of 1905, the Kresy Wschodnie and other borderlands had experienced a political culture of violence. The period of Soviet rule had been profoundly traumatic for residents of the Baltic states and areas that had been part of Poland until 1939; the population was brutalised and terrorised by the imposed Soviet rule, and the existing familiar structures of society were destroyed.
Historian Erich Haberer notes that many survived and made sense of the "totalitarian atomization" of society by seeking conformity with communism. As a result, by the time of the German invasion in 1941, many had come to see conformity with a totalitarian regime as socially acceptable behaviour; thus, people simply transferred their allegiance to the German regime when it arrived. Some who had collaborated with the Soviet regime sought to divert attention from themselves by naming Jews as collaborators and killing them.
Main article: Rumbula massacre
In November 1941 Himmler was dissatisfied with the pace of the exterminations in Latvia, as he intended to move Jews from Germany into the area. He assigned SS-Obergruppenführer Jeckeln, one of the perpetrators of the Babi Yar massacre, to liquidate the Riga ghetto. Jeckeln selected a site about 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) southeast of Riga near the Rumbula railway station, and had 300 Russian prisoners of war prepare the site by digging pits in which to bury the victims. Jeckeln organised around 1,700 men, including 300 members of the Arajs Kommando, 50 German SD men, and 50 Latvian guards, most of whom had already participated in mass killings of civilians. These troops were supplemented by Latvians, including members of the Riga city police, battalion police, and ghetto guards. Around 1,500 able-bodied Jews would be spared execution so their slave labour could be exploited; a thousand men were relocated to a fenced-off area within the ghetto and 500 women were temporarily housed in a prison and later moved to a separate nearby ghetto, where they were put to work mending uniforms.
Although Rumbula was on the rail line, Jeckeln decided that the victims should travel on foot from Riga to the execution ground. Trucks and buses were arranged to carry children and the elderly. The victims were told that they were being relocated, and were advised to bring up to 20 kilograms (44 lb) of possessions. The first day of executions, 30 November 1941, began with the perpetrators rousing and assembling the victims at 4:00 am. The victims were moved in columns of a thousand people toward the execution ground. As they walked, some SS men went up and down the line, shooting people who could not keep up the pace or who tried to run away or rest.
When the columns neared the prepared execution site, the victims were driven some 270 metres (300 yd) from the road into the forest, where any possessions that had not yet been abandoned were seized. Here the victims were split into groups of fifty and taken deeper into the forest, near the pits, where they were ordered to strip. The victims were driven into the prepared trenches, made to lie down, and shot in the head or the back of the neck by members of Jeckeln's bodyguard. Around 13,000 Jews from Riga were killed at the pits that day, along with a thousand Jews from Berlin who had just arrived by train. On the second day of the operation, 8 December 1941, the remaining 10,000 Jews of Riga were killed in the same way. About a thousand were killed on the streets of the city or on the way to the site, bringing the total deaths for the two-day extermination to 25,000 people. For his part in organising the massacre, Jeckeln was promoted to Leader of the SS Upper Section, Ostland.
Einsatzgruppe B, C, and D did not immediately follow Einsatzgruppe A's example in systematically killing all Jews in their areas. The Einsatzgruppe commanders, with the exception of Einsatzgruppe A's Stahlecker, were of the opinion by the fall of 1941 that it was impossible to kill the entire Jewish population of the Soviet Union in one sweep, and thought the killings should stop. An Einsatzgruppe report dated 17 September advised that the Germans would be better off using any skilled Jews as labourers rather than shooting them. Also, in some areas poor weather and a lack of transportation led to a slowdown in deportations of Jews from points further west. Thus, an interval passed between the first round of Einsatzgruppen massacres in summer and fall, and what American historian Raul Hilberg called the second sweep, which started in December 1941 and lasted into the summer of 1942. During the interval, the surviving Jews were forced into ghettos.
Einsatzgruppe A had already murdered almost all Jews in its area, so it shifted its operations into Belarus to assist Einsatzgruppe B. In Dnepropetrovsk in February 1942, Einsatzgruppe D reduced the city's Jewish population from 30,000 to 702 over the course of four days. The German Order Police and local collaborators provided the extra manpower needed to perform all the shootings. Haberer wrote that, as in the Baltic states, the Germans could not have killed so many Jews so quickly without local help. He points out that the ratio of Order Police to auxiliaries was 1 to 10 in both Ukraine and Belarus. In rural areas the proportion was 1 to 20. This meant that most Ukrainian and Belarusian Jews were killed by fellow Ukrainians and Belarusians commanded by German officers rather than by Germans.
The second wave of exterminations in the Soviet Union met with armed resistance in some areas, though the chance of success was poor. Weapons were typically primitive or home-made. Communications were impossible between ghettos in various cities, so there was no way to create a unified strategy. Few in the ghetto leadership supported resistance for fear of reprisals on the ghetto residents. Mass break-outs were sometimes attempted, though survival in the forest was nearly impossible due to the lack of food and the fact that escapees were often tracked down and killed.
Transition to gassing
See also: Final Solution
After a time, Himmler found that the killing methods used by the Einsatzgruppen were inefficient: they were costly, demoralising for the troops, and sometimes did not kill the victims quickly enough. Many of the troops found the massacres to be difficult if not impossible to perform. Some of the perpetrators suffered physical and mental health problems, and many turned to drink. As much as possible, the Einsatzgruppen leaders militarized the genocide. The historian Christian Ingrao notes an attempt was made to make the shootings a collective act without individual responsibility. Framing the shootings in this way was not psychologically sufficient for every perpetrator to feel absolved of guilt. Browning notes three categories of potential perpetrators: those who were eager to participate right from the start, those who participated in spite of moral qualms because they were ordered to do so, and a significant minority who refused to take part. A few men spontaneously became excessively brutal in their killing methods and their zeal for the task. Commander of Einsatzgruppe D, SS-GruppenführerOtto Ohlendorf, particularly noted this propensity towards excess, and ordered that any man who was too eager to participate or too brutal should not perform any further executions.
During a visit to Minsk in August 1941, Himmler witnessed an Einsatzgruppen mass execution first-hand and concluded that shooting Jews was too stressful for his men. By November he made arrangements for any SS men suffering ill health from having participated in executions to be provided with rest and mental health care. He also decided a transition should be made to gassing the victims, especially the women and children, and ordered the recruitment of expendable native auxiliaries who could assist with the murders. Gas vans, which had been used previously to kill mental patients, began to see service by all four main Einsatzgruppen from 1942. However, the gas vans were not popular with the Einsatzkommandos, because removing the dead bodies from the van and burying them was a horrible ordeal. Prisoners or auxiliaries were often assigned to do this task so as to spare the SS men the trauma. Some of the early mass killings at extermination camps used carbon monoxide fumes produced by diesel engines, similar to the method used in gas vans, but by as early as September 1941 experiments were begun at Auschwitz using Zyklon B, a cyanide-based pesticide gas.
Plans for the total eradication of the Jewish population of Europe—eleven million people—were formalised at the Wannsee Conference, held on 20 January 1942. Some would be worked to death, and the rest would be killed in the implementation of the Final Solution of the Jewish question (German:Die Endlösung der Judenfrage). Permanent killing centres at Auschwitz, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, and other Nazi extermination camps replaced mobile death squads as the primary method of mass killing. The Einsatzgruppen remained active, however, and were put to work fighting partisans, particularly in Belarus.
After the fall of Stalingrad in February 1943, Himmler realised that Germany would likely lose the war, and ordered the formation of a special task force, Sonderkommando 1005, under SS-StandartenführerPaul Blobel. The unit's assignment was to visit mass graves all along the Eastern Front to exhume bodies and burn them in an attempt to cover up the genocide. The task remained unfinished at the end of the war, and many mass graves remain unmarked and unexcavated.
By 1944 the Red Army had begun to push the German forces out of Eastern Europe, and the Einsatzgruppen retreated alongside the Wehrmacht. By late 1944, most Einsatzgruppen personnel had been folded into Waffen-SS combat units or transferred to permanent death camps. Hilberg estimates that between 1941 and 1945 the Einsatzgruppen and related agencies killed more than two million people, including 1.3 million Jews. The total number of Jews murdered during the war is estimated at 5.5 to six million people.
Plans for the Middle East and Britain
According to research by German historians Klaus-Michael Mallmann and Martin Cüppers, an Einsatzgruppe was created in 1942 to kill the half-million Jews living in the British Mandate of Palestine and the 50,000 Jews of Egypt. Einsatzgruppe Egypt, standing by in Athens, was prepared to go to Palestine once German forces arrived there. SS-ObersturmbannführerWalter Rauff was to lead the unit. Given its small staff of only 24 men, Einsatzgruppe Egypt would have needed help from local residents and from the Afrika Korps to complete their assignment. Its members planned to enlist collaborators from the local population to perform the killings under German leadership. Former Iraqi prime minister Rashid Ali al-Gaylani and the Grand Mufti of JerusalemHaj Amin al-Husseini played roles, engaging in antisemitic radio propaganda, preparing to recruit volunteers, and in raising an Arab-German Battalion that would also follow Einsatzgruppe Egypt to the Middle East. On 20 July 1942, Walther Rauff, who was responsible for the unit, was sent to Tobruk to report to Field Marshal Erwin Rommel, Commander of the Afrika Korps. However, since Rommel was 500 km away at the First Battle of El Alamein, it is unlikely that the two were able to meet. The plans for Einsatzgruppe Egypt were set aside after the Allied victory at the Second Battle of El Alamein. Historian Jean-Christoph Caron opines that there is no evidence that Rommel knew of or would have supported Rauff's mission.
Had Operation Sea Lion, the German plan for an invasion of the United Kingdom been launched, six Einsatzgruppen were scheduled to follow the invasion force into Britain. They were provided with a list called die Sonderfahndungsliste, G.B. ("Special Search List, G.B"), known as The Black Book after the war, of 2,300 people to be immediately imprisoned by the Gestapo. The list included Churchill, members of the cabinet, prominent journalists and authors, and members of the Czechoslovak government-in-exile.
The Einsatzgruppen kept official records of many of their massacres and provided detailed reports to their superiors. The Jäger Report, filed by Commander SS-StandartenführerKarl Jäger on 1 December 1941 to his superior, Stahlecker (head of Einsatzgruppe A), covers the activities of Einsatzkommando III in Lithuania over the five-month period from 2 July 1941 to 25 November 1941.
Jäger's report provides an almost daily running total of the liquidations of 137,346 people, the vast majority of them Jews. The report documents the exact date and place of massacres, the number of victims, and their breakdown into categories (Jews, Communists, criminals, and so on). Women were shot from the very beginning, but initially in fewer numbers than men. Children were first included in the tally starting in mid-August, when 3,207 people were murdered in Rokiškis on 15–16 August 1941. For the most part the report does not give any military justification for the killings; people were killed solely because they were Jews. In total, the report lists over 100 executions in 71 different locations. Jäger wrote: "I can state today that the goal of solving the Jewish problem in Lithuania has been reached by Einsatzkommando 3. There are no more Jews in Lithuania, apart from working Jews and their families." In a February 1942 addendum to the report, Jäger increased the total number of victims to 138,272, giving a breakdown of 48,252 men, 55,556 women, and 34,464 children. Only 1,851 of the victims were non-Jewish.
Jäger escaped capture by the Allies when the war ended. He lived in Heidelberg under his own name until his report was discovered in March 1959. Arrested and charged, Jäger committed suicide on 22 June 1959 in a Hohenasperg prison while awaiting trial for his crimes.
Involvement of the Wehrmacht
Main article: War crimes of the Wehrmacht
The killings took place with the knowledge and support of the German Army in the east. On 10 October 1941 Field Marshal Walther von Reichenau drafted an order to be read to the German Sixth Army on the Eastern Front. Now known as the Severity Order, it read in part:
The most important objective of this campaign against the Jewish-Bolshevik system is the complete destruction of its sources of power and the extermination of the Asiatic influence in European civilization ... In this eastern theatre, the soldier is not only a man fighting in accordance with the rules of the art of war, but also the ruthless standard bearer of a national conception ... For this reason the soldier must learn fully to appreciate the necessity for the severe but just retribution that must be meted out to the subhuman species of Jewry.
Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt of Army Group South expressed his "complete agreement" with the order. He sent out a circular to the generals under his command urging them to release their own versions and to impress upon their troops the need to exterminate the Jews.
Execution of Poles in Kórnik, 20 October 1939
A teenage boy stands beside his murdered family shortly before his own death by the SS. Zboriv, Ukraine, 5 July 1941
Page 6 of the Jäger Report shows the number of people killed by Einsatzkommando III alone in the five-month period covered by the report as 137,346.
Staff Development Vendors
Tech Ed Services has services for grantwriting (past DHS writing) and staff development.
Go to their website for getting a staff development packet mailed to you.
Tech Ed Services, Inc.
8255 Firestone Boulevard
Downey California 90241
V: (800) 832-4411
Fax: (562) 869-5673
Will have a link on their web site listing Master Agreements for software products.
Check the Purchasing Branch web site for further updates at:
Sources of educational discounted software:
Educational Resources through CalSAVE
Monterey County Office of Education's CalSAVE Project Announces Microsoft Select Competitive Bid Award to Educational Resources
CalSAVE is happy to announce that Educational Resources has been awarded our Microsoft Select Contract and will be working closely with us to address all of your needs and questions.
Ordering your Microsoft programs through Educational Resources is a smart move because you receive:
* An immediate response to your calls
* Same day fulfillment on orders
* Knowledgeable support
* Professional service
* School-friendly prices
* MOUS Certified Trainers
* A FREE record of your purchasing historyWith 16-years of experience in the K-12 market, Educational Resources is the only Large Account Reseller for Microsoft that deals exclusively with schools. Educational Resources is also the ONLY APPROVED CalSave Microsoft Vendor.
Get the support, service, and savings you deserve by ordering through the Educational Resources and CalSave partnership.
Click here for purchasing information. Then, stay tuned to this space for the latest information on the contract. Mark Rafalzik, our account manager at Educational Resources, is available to answer your questions. Contact him at 888.800.2834 or via e-mail at mrafalzik...@edresources.com
Donated Windows box that meets the qualifications, Microsoft has a program FREE
If anyone has a donated Windows box that meets the qualifications, Microsoft has a program to provide FREE (yes, you read that correctly), free OS licenses, either Win 98 or 2000 for each donated PC. This may help your site meet copyright compliance.
A few caveats;
Yes, this is a good deal, BUT1. If the school is lax on maintaining records-- forget it. This offer requires them to maintain accurate records long term and effectively puts the school on Microsoft's radar.
2. It should not be used as an excuse to start accepting donations. Many donations are below the PII (or equivalent) minimum and, if the operating system is gone, I'm sure the applications weren't included in the box either.
Remember, nothing is "free."
If you are at a small school/ charter, lots of good stuff here for a small admin fee.
Found via "/." via "nytimes.com"
Sources for additional software information:
California Technology Assistance Project sites
Licensing question (April 10, 2003):
Here is the scenario and I need to hear from Microsoft whether this is okay or not: A school wants to put Office 2001 on their OS X/Office X loaded Apple. They keep the Office X on the machine's hard drive and load Office 2001 on the OS 8/9 partition (section?) of the hard drive. They have both copies on the machine and both are useable, however not at the same time.
Yay or nay?
"I just got an answer back from my License Specialist. You can only load both versions of Office on the same system if you have licenses for each version. In your case, it looks like you have the Office 10.0 for Mac OS X only so you can either run that version or downgrade to a previous version."
K-12 Strategic & Major Accounts Manager
Education Solutions Group - SoCal District
* email: tuanng...@microsoft.com
New licensing programs. See www.microsoft.com/education/license
Program is called Fresh Start. Lets you have a legitimate Windows operating system on donated machines.
http://www.microsoft.com/education/ do a search for "Fresh Start" or go to:
http://www.microsoft.com/education/?ID=FreshStart (worked on 7_7_03)
They are available at any CompUsa, and BestBuy for an MRP of $79.95.
You, as an educator, can even get it for free and only pay for media cost.
All the info is at:
If you're in a real hurry you can buy it as a download at:
Open Office http://www.openoffice.org
Projection and AV Devices
Good Information on AV equipment by Da-lite
Screen size, distance, Manufacturer calculator and other links
Educational Links on Presentaion Equipment
(If ordering a DA-LITE 100" portable screen - it may require special shipping from certain vendors.)
Troxell for Sound Systems (bought out AudioGraphics)
Account Executive - Los Angeles
Troxell Communications, Inc.
email@example.com (remove xxxx)
Troxell Communications, Inc.
16478 Beach Blvd. #379
Westminster, CA 92683
KIS and Epson to provide AV instaLlations.
Commercial Account Manager
City Sound Inc., vendor 104030
12025 Florence Ave. #306
Sante Fe Springs, CA 90670
Ametron vendor 127867
1546 N. Argyle Avenue
Hollywood CA 90028
Epson America, Inc.
LAUSD Contact for Projectors, Printers, Scanners
Charles Banston, Commercial Account Manager
V: 800.338.2349 Ext. 7115
Epson America, Inc.
3840 Kilroy Airport Way
Long Beach, CA 90806-2469
Mike Selwyn and Associates
He did the auditorium size conference room at District E and everyone is very happy with his work.
His prices were also very reasonable. Will work with other vendors.
LAUSD vendor number: 156297-2
Henry Barnston at CCS Presentation Systems sold, serviced and installed all the projectors at Bravo Medical Magnet. Henry is honest, knowledgeable, competitive and easygoing. He has supported our new projectors after they were installed. We are very happy. I would use him as a resource.
CCS Presentation Systems
CCS Presentation Systems
5055 Wilshire Blvd. Suite 305
323-954-7754 Ext. 13 (Office) 213-369-9891 (Cell)
Contractor’s License #830835
E: barnston...@ccsprojects.com Henry Barnston's contact information:
Direct Office Phone: 323-954-7754 X13
Troxell Communications, Inc.
2501 E. Chapman Ave. Suite 290
Vendor: 118270 ??
Contact: Dan Stahlecker, Area Sales Manager
Seeking info on:
Installation Caveats for LCDs
Anytime you plan on attaching anything to walls or ceilings you should be working with your Facilities contacts. There are lead paint and asbestos issues. There are also rules for types of bolts used for various types of building materials. There are also earthquake safety rules. Word of caution. You should call Roger F. or Philip A. for assistance. Not long ago a school was closed down for a few days because asbestos penetration. Again work with your Facilities contact. Talk to your plant manager or a site administrator if you are not sure who this might be.
Items to consider purchasing for AudioVisual:
Select from 3 compact and 3 large footprint projectors in various price ranges at CMAS or better prices
VGA cables (M/M) at 10", 15" and 25' lengths to move the LCD away from the presenter
Female/Female VGA adapters for connecting longer cables
AV or Grip tape rolls in yellow and black priced by sets of 5 and by the case (25?) in yellow and black -- ONLY if the tape is designed not to leave residue on carpets, linoleum, and hardwood floors.
good quality surge protector outlet with current indicator light
other cables S-VIDEO, component, RCA, USB in 5', 10', 15' lengths
sets of 10 and cases of VCR tapes in 10, 20, 30 minute capacities
anything else that makes a complete one stop shopping experience for schools to make a selection from.
Comments on LCD projectors by Michael O., Electronics Technical Supervisor, October 25, 2002
Rated output in lumens is just part of the story. There are other factors in perceived brightness, such as contrast ratios and color purity. For example, a higher contrast ratio will often "read" as a brighter picture even if rated lumens are the same. It is also worthwhile to note that fixed focal length lenses are generally more efficient than zoom type lenses. Look at the "f" rating of the lens. A lens with an aperture of f1.2 is twice as efficient as an f1.4 lens. Hence, you may get a brighter image from a lower lumen rating if the lens is more efficient. Additionally, there are two types of projectors on the market, the true (older) LCD and the newer DLP (digital light processing). Each is different, both in perceived brightness, and color rendition. An interesting overview of these and other projection issues is located at:
Battery backup system selection
For networks, see: http://www.apc.com/template/size/apc/
For single workstations, see: http://www.apc.com/template/size/workstation/single/
Other types, see: http://www.apc.com/sizing/selectors.cfm
Receptacle identification: http://www.bestpower.com/products/receptaclechart_60hz_120v.htm
Palm Related Sites (this link has not been updated)
Apple Computer Contacts:
Apple Computer, Inc. Vendor Number #101415
Atten: K-12 Education Sales Support
2420 Ridgepoint Drive, Mailstop: 198_ED
Austin TX 78754-911
Michael Hoy, Lead Account Executive, hoy...@apple.com remove the "..." He is in sales but not usually on the day to day level. You would want Michael for leadership presentations, strategic associations, and long-term visions.
Sales rep for LAUSD is Jaime Perez, LAUSD Apple Account Executive cell: 213-841-9296 jaime.perez...@apple.com remove the "...".
Leigh Perry, iAE, leigh...@apple.com (Is Leigh SALES??) remove the "..." Best Day-to-Day Sales contact. Leigh will do the quotes on hardware, software, and solutions.
Apple Systems Engineer
David Douglas douglas...@apple.com Apple Systems Engineer. He is a pre-sales support engineer. Contact him with specific needs and questions.
Follow up inquiries:
Leigh Perry firstname.lastname@example.org remove the "..."
Gloria Bass gbass...@apple.com remove the "...". Gloria is the order management such as booking, shipping, and follow ups.
1) For status of orders not received: email Gloria Bass, Sales Support, gbass...@apple.com remove the "..." Gloria is the order management such as booking, shipping, and follow ups.
2) For invoices for orders received: - email Betty Duel, Account Receivable, bdue...email@example.com remove the "..."
3) To check on orders being scheduled for installation: - email Reyna Paniagua reyna...@areyjones.com remove the "..."
• Apple Portal for LAUSD Schools: http://techsupport.lausd.net/apple_techrep.htm InsideLAUSD account needed
APple MagSafe Power Adapters - Strain Relief Problems
The white insulation on the new apple MagSafe power adapters has become such
a problem they are replacing power adapters for free that have torn
insulation. Info here:
LCD Monitor coverage:
1) All LAUSD Apple LCDs are covered under Apple LAUSD warranty. The only vendor to do so for accidental damage coverage. Please call the LAUSD Service Desk at 213-241-LA00 to dispatch into any service call.
2) Apple generally does not make any 3PP recommendations. I think 3M is the strongest candidate. Kensington used to have one as well. Not sure how these would fit the new 2007 iMacs.
Apple 10.x Automatic Scripts(not 10.5)
Macs with 10x up thorugh 10.4 should leave computers on some nights.
In Mac OS X Tiger (10.4 and earlier this is true)
Mac OS X has had a series of scripts that run at:
-Nightly at 3:15 AM
-Weekly at 3:15 AM
-First Day of the Month at 5:30 AM
In Mac OS X Leopard these scripts are now scheduled using a technology that is no longer dependent on the computer being on that those specified times. If a computer is not running the scripts will be run the next time the computer is up and running.
What if the computer is left on:
- in a non-administrator account?
Scripts still run
- in Powersaving Sleep?
10.5: on wake
10.4 and earlier will not run.
- in Powersaving hard disk sleep?
LAUSD ordering Information:
Presales questions and quotes, contact Rod: maestas...@apple.com or 800.800.2775 x56824
Order Status/Changes (must have PO#), contact Arthur: firstname.lastname@example.org or 800.800.2775 x42519 and fax 512.674.2924
For scheduling installation, contact Carol from Arey Jones: carol...@areyjopnes.com or 800.998.9199 or fax.403.8828
Apple Technical Support and Warranty Service:
Call the HelpDesk for Service 213.241.5200
Object Code for purchasing Technical Services is 4501
Monthly Price lists in .pdf (LAUSD may be getting better pricing, features, software, and warrantee on computers than seen in the .pdf.)
Apple Notebook, iPod, and iPhone batteries http://www.apple.com/batteries/replacements.html
If you own an older model PowerBook or iBook, several third parties offer compatible batteries, and Apple authorized service centers can order batteries for models up to seven years old.
Maximize battery life for Notebooks, iPods, iPhones http://www.apple.com/batteries/notebooks.html
With a little bit of care, you can maximize the battery life (i.e. the time your battery will run before it must be recharged) and lifespan of your notebook's battery. Most importantly, use your Apple notebook in its comfort zone for temperature (See “Notebook Temperate Zone”). Don’t leave it locked in a hot trunk during the summer.
Apple 85W MagSafe for MacBook Pro http://store.apple.com/us/product/MA938LL/A
Apple 60W MagSafe for MacBook http://store.apple.com/us/product/MA538LL/B
Apple 45W MagSafe for MacBook Air http://store.apple.com/us/product/MB283LL/A
iBook 65W Power Adapter http://store.apple.com/us/product/M8943LL/A
(May be missing a couple items here for older iBooks)
Apple Mini-DVI to Video Adapter
The Mini-DVI to Video adapter is designed for the iMac (Intel Core Duo), MacBook*, and 12-inch PowerBook G4, allowing you to connect to most S-video or Composite enabled devices.
Apple DVI to Video Adapter
Use the DVI to Video Adapter to connect the DVI port on a Mac Pro (with ATI X1900 XT), MacBook Pro, or Mac mini to any S-video or Composite enabled device. http://store.apple.com/us/product/M9267G/A
Apple DVI to VGA Display Adapter
Use a DVI to VGA display adapter for connecting Macs equipped with a DVI port to an external VGA monitor or projector at home, office or to have handy while on the road.
Apple DVI to ADC Adapter
Buy the Apple DVI to ADC adapter to connect your DVI-equipped MacBook, MacBook Pro, iMac (Intel Core Duo), PowerBook G4, Mac mini, or Power Mac to an ADC-based Apple flat panel display* including: Apple Studio Display (15" or 17"), Apple Cinema Display (20"), Apple Cinema Display (22") or Apple Cinema HD Display http://store.apple.com/us/product/M8661LL/B
Apple Micro-DVI to Video Adapter
Newly designed to fit the slim profile of MacBook Air, the Apple Micro-DVI to Video Adapter allows you to connect to most S-video or Composite enabled devices.
Apple Server Information - June 9, 2006
There are a few things you should be aware of when considering a server.
Where will you place the server?
The server will need to be located near a fast a network connection as possible. It is unlikely that the server can be housed in the main networking cabinet, due to District restrictions, therefore consideration of where to place the server needs to be discussed. OS X Server comes with many services built in as part of the package. If you are considering a web server, blog server, podcast server, portfolio storage, these services are among those included. As far as setting those services up in your school's environment, it is suggested that you purchase Professional Services to enable them. In
general, three days are recommended for this.When you are ready to begin thinking about where to start with the server, there are some excellent OS X Server information resources you should consider:
Look in the Downloads T&T for older materials
Peachpit Press has a series on OS X Training, specifically OS X Server support at: http://www.peachpit.com/series/series.asp?ser=413531&rl=1
These can be purchased at Amazon.
More specifically on the traning front, there are leader led courses offered by Apple. There are various opportunities for certification on OSX and OS X Server. You can find more information at http://train.apple.com/cgi-bin/WebObjects/Registration.woa/wa/displayTracks
There is also a discussion of purchasing Training Units that can be used to take these courses whenever you're ready. If you would like more information on the training courses specifically, please call Chris at (408) 974-0599, chaase...@apple.com
Netboot and Mac Manager training comments (M.L.)
We covered Netboot and Mac Manager the last day. This is the hardest part of the server management. There are problems that arise from the different versions of these two applications, and some problems related to the transition from OS 9 to OS X.
Many training attendees are running Accelerated Reader and because it only runs in OS 9, and because of the need to mount a server volume on the local desktop, it cannot be used in the Classic environment on OS X. We run Accelerated Reader as well and it will slow down our transition to OS X.
IBM - Arey Jones Educational Solutions
Arey Jones Website
Note: Servers must meet LAUSD specification
Arey Jones Server Contacts:
LAUSD Server Specialist and Elementary School
(800) 998-9199 (tel.)
(888) 272-2175 (pager)
Middle High School and Offices
LAUSD Account Executive
Arey Jones Educational Solutions
'Monique' deals with Apple orders and deliveries
8693-A La Mesa Blvd.
La Mesa, CA 91941
Michael Scarpella, VP
Arey Jones HP LAUSD Page
Kirk Fabrizo kirk.fabrizo...@hp.com (remove the ...) Serving Local 5, 6, 7, 8
Chris Steifel christine.streifel Serving Locals 1, 2, 3,, 4
Arey Jones Hewlett Packard Account Manager
danielle.derose...@areyjones.com (remove the ...)
520 South Mateo
Los Angeles, CA 90013
Computer Contract #: 0450024
Server Contract #: 0650149
LAUSD Vendor Code # 124373
Gateway/MPC contacts here
Gateway LAUSD Approved Computers
https://secure.mpccorp.com/userlogin.asp?usr=LAUSDQuoter&pwd=LAUSD (Contacts found at this site, also)
Order Mailing Address:
Attn: James Miller
PO BOX 1880,
North Sioux City, SD 57049
800-846-2030 (press 1) Ext. 27656
1. Sales Extensions: Jim - 27656
2. Pro Customer Service: (800)846-2030
3. Peripheral or Part Sales: Danelle ext. 27606
LAUSD’s Inside Account Managers:
(800) 846-2030 Ext. 27656
Fax: (605) 232-8255
E-Mail: james.miller...@mpccorp.com (remove the "...")
LAUSD’s Local Account Managers
Office : (310)297-9371 Cell: (310)918-9204
Los Angeles, CA
E-Mail: dan.feist...@mpccorp.com (remove the "...")
Gateway LAUSD Help Desk (Technical Support)
Phone: (888) 888-2040 PIN #: 60198
- or - LAUSD ITD (213) 241-5200
-0r email lausdsupport...@mpccorp.com (remove the "...") with system serial number, description of the problem and contact information.
Parts & Accessories Sales: (Sales Information)
(800) 846-2042 ext. 27606 Fax (605) 232-8255
Gateway/MPC Customer Service:
Pro Customer Care Order Information & Status
Phone: (800) 840-2030
Fax: (605) 232-8255
Support Web Site: http://www.gateway.com/support/
LAUSD Employee Purchase:
LAUSD Service and Support Provider:
Arey Jones Educational Solutions
Services Manager: Mattie Scarpella
Office Phone: (800) 998-9199 Fax: (800) 403-8828
mattie...@areyjones.com (remove the "...")
Don Bechtold - Educational Consultant
1740 5th Street
Manhattan Beach, CA 90266
Peoples Education (measuring Up) http://www.peopleseducation.com/products/measuringup/
Lectorum - http://www.lectorum.com/eng/
Benchmark - http://www.benchmarkeducation.com/
Knowledge Industries http://www.knowledgeindustries.com/
Nystrom/Cram Maps Globles Atlases http://www.nystromnet.com/
E: donbechtold1 at aol.com
KIS Computer Center the source for printers - not Arey Jones or Stock Warehouse.
If printers are in stock turnaround is about two days.
Ptinters and supplies from KIS are for District installed Edusoft components.
Old LAUSD login pagehttp://www.kis.org/lausd/default.asp
Users will need to create an account.
Vendor #: 110209
11801-5 E. Telegraph Road Santa Fe Springs, CA 90670
V: 562.942.0338 x111/115
Sophia Lin x111
Joanne Chow x115
Patricia Medina x125
Richard Chan x101 (owner)
Peter for deliveries at 562.942.0338 x224 phu...@kis.org
LOS ANGELES UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT ACCOUNT MANAGERS
Vendor number is 129830 for CDWG
PO's can be faxed to account managers listed below or mailed to
230 N.Milwaukee Avenue
Vernon Hills, IL 60061
Please Specify platform of product ordering (e.g. Mac or PC)
Note: A CD-ROM is not a license. A CD-ROM and a license is needed for one CPU. One CD-ROM can be used for many CPUs provided a license is purchased for each CPU.
District, departments, Beyond the Bell, etc.
Local District 5, 6, and 7
Local District 8
Local District 2 and 4
Local Districts 1 and 3
A PC Connection, Inc. Company*
IT Solutions for Government and Education
klampen...@govconnection.com (remove the 3...)
Phone 800-800-0019 ext. 33137
LAUSD Vendor Code 158817A
Contract # 0337850002
CMAS # 3-04-70-1725b
top-Lexmark Network Printers from Initiative for Individual School or Office Network Printer Purchases
Any school or office can take advantage of the AB2882 printer pricing: For AB2882 and for the Elementary Classroom Technology Initiative, the Lexmark e312L has been purchased, along with a network server box, the Marknet X2000. This comes to about $400 per machine.
I've heard good reviews on the printer, but keep in mind, it is not a huge printer.... it would be appropriate for an individual classroom with moderate printing needs, but I wouldn't try to share it with too many people... . You can order this printer by contacting KIS Computers (562-942-0338 x115). Ask for Helen or Sophia and tell them you want the AB2882 package. If you decide you want a different printer, Helen and Sophia are quite helpful at identifying products and optimal pricing.
The in-warranty, LAUSD specific number is 800.453.9787. The customer number associated with this is 54201681.
IEP Computer and LExmark Printer Information
KIS Computers has 1800 and 6000 duty cycle toner cartridges for the Lexmark printer delivered with the IEP computers.
KIS Computers 562.942.0338
Alpha Data for Alternative Toner Vendor: Jim Burke, 800-714-5711, who claims to offer redesigned cartridges with improved toner with longer life, no streaking for $250 each.
Easy Grade Pro -Don't buy -- Grading to be done on ISIS
(from a ITC srting submission by KB) "...Tom says if you already have a license it costs only $10 to buy the upgraded disks. New manuals are $12.
Easy Grade Pro is cross platform (WIN/MAC). A site license for an entire school for home and school site use is $249 WIN (95,98,NT Me, or 2000),
$249 MAC (7.0 or higher) or $374 Win/Mac. And comes with free tech support for registered users.
You must save your files first to a floppy, then uninstall Easy Grade Pro 3.5, then install EAsy Grade Pro 3.6. 3.6 should convert your old gradebook to the new format.
Easy Grade Pro has also just introduced EGP (Easy Grade Pro) Clipboard for the Palm Pilot. Site license is $125
The company has often been too busy lately to answer the phone. Tom recommends faxing your request and credit card info or P.O. info to his company. ..."
Orbis Software Inc.
PO Box 73745
Puyallup, WA 98373
D& D Security Resources
A CMAS school/government contract source #4-99-74-0033A
Vendor for Bretford, Super-Lok, AnchorPad
HighSmith Computer Furniture http://www.highsmith.com
W5527 Highway 106
P.O. Box 800
Fort Atkinson, WI 53536-0800
800.558.3899 Customer Service and Invoice Information
Smart Expressions Multimedia Carts.
"I'm not kidding, years later, after I left that school, I still get
compliments from the teachers at that school for buying those carts.
They love 'em! I think they purchased more after I left. They appreciate
how it really is a "one-stop" multimedia presentation center that clean,
neat, and comprehensive. Go figure.
I purchased them from Joe Feka @ Calwest (909.985.8651). He's great.
He'll come to your school to meet with you, demo stuff for the staff,
the whole nine-yards." VC
(FYI a SMARTBoard support page is found here)
Which ever vendor you select, be sure to reference SmartBoard Master Grant #150860YYC
for LAUSD pre-negotiated pricing.
California Western Visuals (CWV)
V: (909) 985-8651
Their address is:
1042 N. Mountain Ave.
Upland, CA 91786
Their vendor code is: 149076
CCS Presentation Systems:
" SMART has a great demo offer for LAUSD. If you are interested in evaluating a new 77" SMART
Board for 30-45 days with no purchasing obligation please contact me. Once qualified, I can arrange the board
to be delivered to a central location or school site. I can also arrange for a demonstration of the board to show administrators and teachers how it can enhance existing curriculums in a variety of subjects."
Please call me for product info, quotes and on-site demonstrations.
<<SMART Board 680 Brochure.pdf>> <<NEC VT48, VT480, VT580.pdf>> <<Toshiba TDP-T91AU.pdf>>
CCS Presentation Systems
5055 Wilshire Blvd. Suite 305
323-954-7754 Ext. 13 (Office) 213-369-9891 (Cell)
Contractor’s License #830835
E: barnston...@ccsprojects.com Henry Barnston's contact information:
Direct Office Phone: 323-954-7754 X13
Now provides sales, set-up, initial training, and advanced training.
Products, services, and contacts on Excel Sheet here. Use the SMARTBoard specifications to help make choices here
InkJet Cartridge Vendor
I almost used TD Curran and then my usual rep lowered his prices to meet and beat TD's pricing. I also found pricing depends on which cartridge. Compare prices on the cartridges you use most often.
Some vendors will sell cartridges
that have high failure rates. If our vendor discovers that a particular cartridge has a high failure rate he will only sell that cartridge OEM, which will of course be at a higher price. I have had a harder time finding price differentiation on toner products as compared to ink. He will also replace cartridges that fail. Ask for Banning High School pricing.
Our vendor is Pacific Computer Products in Long Beach with Jack Grimshaw at 562-446-4310. He always takes good care of us. Some sample prices are epson 740 black for $4.75 and Epson 740 color for $8.75
Banning HS DHS/Tech Coordinator
Grade Bubbler - don't buy - grading to be done on ISIS
Schoneburg Consulting7626 Brokmont Place
West Hills, CA 91304-5200
Easy Grade Pro - don't buy - grading to be done on ISIS
Contact: Tom ...
PO Box 73745
Puyallup, WA 98373
Printer information for Office Applications
To assist you regarding printers, a call to the Computer HelpDesk may assist you.
Call 213.633.8110. Tehre is SIS and Business software help available.SIS will provide a list of Lexmark printers and a vendor name.
If you need an IMPACT printer for non-SIS use, Epson makes a variety of them.
Inspiration (two vendors listed here)
Instructional Reference Notes:
The Northeast and Islands Regional Technology Consortium has created Technology Briefs to help educators and administrators meet the demands of the No Child Left Behind legislation. Inspiration is mentioned 3 times by name, throughout the brief as a tool that can be used to create graphic organizers and for 'writing across the curriculum'. Please fill out the form online to download a free copy of the brief:
Inspiration, Kidspiration, Palm versions information
A single license of Inspiration or Kidspiration is 69.00 each.
Purchase 5 or more volume licenses of Inspiration at $19.00
per license and $20.00 per license for Kidspiration. You can get
discounts through the http://www.calsave.org site.
KIS is another source for single, five packs and lab packs (not volume)
Volume Licensing for Inspiration
Contact: Martin Smith (800-624-2926 ex 3286)
$15.55 was the most current pricing from them.
Altiris - PC managementhttp://www.altiris.com/
From June, 2003
Mike Schutz, Educational Technology Consultant
I have attached 4 documents about Altiris Deployment Solution software:
* Technical Requirements; and
* Technical Questionnaire.
* Networking and Services
Altiris products can now be leased, either through Altiris, or other leasing companies. I know that it may be difficult to justify the extra cost of leasing. However, it may make it possible for schools to acquire Deployment Solution or other Altiris programs that do not have funds to pay "up front." Altiris and several other leasing companies also may be willing to include the cost of installation and training.
Call me at (626) 576-7321 if you have any questions or would like an on-site demonstration.
I also have attached a one page description of all of our network products and services for your review.
I would appreciate it if you would confirm that you got this message and the four documents. Thanks.
User comment on Vision:
Vision is relatively simple to install. You just have to make sure not to assign the same port to more than 1 master station. The client editions are very easy to install, too. As for problems, sometimes it would lock up or while doing a demonstration on the internet, the links would open very slowly.
Altiris® Client Mgmt Suite
was developed as a single-point of support for professionals who need to manage and maximize their IT resources. From a Web-based console, Client Mgmt Suite lets you control, deploy, and manage your computers, be they desktops, notebooks, or handhelds or any combination of those.
Altiris eXpress Client Mgmt Suite is an easy-to-use systems management solution that helps reduce the total cost of ownership for desktops, notebooks, and handheld devices. Developed for IT professionals who manage computing devices on a regular basis, the suite enables administrators to deploy, manage, and troubleshoot systems from virtually anywhere.
Client Mgmt Suite includes Deployment Solution, Inventory Solution, Application Metering Solution, Application Mgmt Solution, SW Delivery Solution, and Carbon Copy Solution.
PC Transplant Pro
The easiest way to migrate Windows PCs.
PC Transplant Pro makes transferring the files and settings that make your PC unique-its personality-a quick and intuitive process. The PC Transplant Wizard helps identify and capture files, directories, and desktop, network, and application settings, and builds them into a compressed, self-extracting Personality Package. The Migration Wizard simplifies OS migrations by cloning the OS and migrating each PC's unique name, IP address (or DHCP settings), and automatically creating a user account with network and sharing rights, printer drivers, and personality.
Teach, supervise & demonstrate with networked computers
Altiris Vision is a software tool that gives instructors full control of the PCs in their classroom. With Altiris Vision, Instructors can remotely monitor, evaluate, demonstrate, control, or lock-down one or several student PCs in a classroom environment.
Altiris Carbon Copy
The easiest way to remotely access and control PCs.
Altiris Carbon Copy is an easy-to-install, easy-to-use, and easy-to-administer remote solution providing remote control, file transfer, voice chat and remote printing. Designed for telecommuters, helpdesk personnel, and system administrators, Carbon Copy provides access to remote machines across the network or Internet. Immediately run remote applications, diagnose problems, or proactively maintain servers.
One of the high schools in our local district is considering a server-based solution that runs over the LAN with strategically placed scanners for students to swipe an id card through (500 students in 5 minutes is the claim). Teachers can see through a web browser who is present, absent, tardy and cutting class. The solution is called is CAASS. The web site is http://www.schooltech.com
Symantec Education Site
Symantec Enterprise Solutions
Educational rep for symantec that handles LAUSD is Mark Jackson.
Account Executive - SW
14822 S. 13th Place
Phoenix, AZ 85048
V: 480.460.0804 Office
Vendor number: contact B. Gatus in your purchasing department.
Other Symantec Enterprise vendors:
Binary Research - (888) 446-7898 / email@example.com
ASAP Software Express - (800) 248-2727
Corporate Software & Technology - (800) 677-4000
SoftChoice Corporation - (800) 268-7638
Softmart - (800) 328-1319
Software House International, Inc. - (800) 527-6389
Software Spectrum - (800) 787-1166
Ultra Key -- a Typing Tutor
recommended by Lab Instructor at Dwyer EL.
Unlimited site license is $795.
All the Right Type
It's a no frills program that works on both platforms and has a management system for teachers. It works well for our 3-5 students and would work well for older students as well. We have the network version, so all records are stored in one place. I haven't tried the new version 3 but you can demo it here.
Technology Resource Teacher
San Miguel Ave. Elementary School
On Wednesday, August 27, 2003, at 01:08 AM, P. B. wrote: