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About Kolkata Metro Rail
The Kolkata Metro is a metro railroad
serving the city of Kolkata and the locale of South 24 Parganas and North 24 Parganas in the Indian state of West Bengal. The system as of now comprises of one operational line from Noapara to Kavi Subhash. Five different lines are under development. The Kolkata Metro was the main the First Metro Railway in India, opening for business and commercial services from 1984. This is so glad that the Kolkata Metro is well known and reffer as “India’s First, Kolkata’s Pride”.
On 29th December,2010 Metro Railway,Kolkata turned into the seventeenth zone of the Indian Railways, worked by the Ministry of Railways. In past there is one and only metro railroad in Kolkata. Be that as it may, at present there is an another metro railroad developing in Kolkata called East West Metro Corridor worked by Kolkata Metro Rail Corporation(KMRC) which is a Govt. of India Enterprise. The East-West Metro Route is arranged from Salt Lake Sector-V to Howrah Maidan(Line 2). The Noapara-Kavi Subhash(Line 1) and other proposed Lines(Except Line 2) are worked by Metro Railway, Kolkata and the East-West Corridor(Line 2) is worked by Kolkata Metro Rail Corporation(KMRC).
History of Kolkata Metro
After independence in 1947, the vehicle issue of Kolkata drew the consideration of city organizers, the state government furthermore the government of India. It was soon understood that something must be done and rapidly keeping in mind the end goal to adapt to the circumstance. Dr. B.C Roy(Bidhan Chandra Roy) then Chief Minister of West Bengal, initially considered in 1949, the thought of building an Underground Railway for Kolkata to attempt to take care of the issues. An overview was finished by a group of French specialists, yet nothing concrete happened to this. Endeavors to take care of the issue by enlarging the current armada of open transport vehicles barely helped, since streets represent just 4.2% of the surface territory in Calcutta, contrasted and 25% in Delhi and even 30% in different urban areas. With a perspective to discovering elective answers for reduce the agony of Calcuttans, the Metropolitan Transport Project (Rlys) was set up in 1969.
The MTP (Rlys), with help of Soviet authorities (Lenmetroproekt) and East German engineers, arranged a ground breaking strategy to give five fast travel (metro) lines for the city of Kolkata, totalling a course length of 97.5 km in 1971.
Be that as it may, just three were chosen for development. These were:
Dum – Tollygunge
Salt Lake City – Ramrajatala (truncated till Howrah Maidan)
Dakshineshwar – Thakurpukur (course changed to Joka – BBD Bagh)
Of these, the most astounding need was given to the bustling north-south pivot between Dum and Tollygunge over a length of 16.45 km, and the work on this venture was authorized on 1 June 1972. The establishment stone of the task was laid by Indira Gandhi, the then Prime Minister of India, on 29 December 1972 and the development work began in 1973-74.
In those beginning of Kolkata Metro, the arranging, thought preparing, and political help of the entire task was borne verging on without any assistance by the Union Railway Minister from West Bengal – A. B. A. Ghani Khan Choudhury – frequently against (and to the vexation of) the predominant socio-political position of his peers in the West Bengal government. From the begin of development, the task needed to battle with a few issues including lacking assets (until 1977-78), a moving of underground utilities, court orders, and an unpredictable supply of key materials. Regardless of the challenges confronted, administrations started on 24 October 1984, with the charging of a fractional business administration covering a separation of 3.40 km with five stations served in the middle of Esplanade and Bhowanipur(Currently Netaji Bhavan). The primary metro was driven by Tapan Kumar Nath and Sanjoy Sil. The administration was immediately trailed by worker administrations on another 2.15 km stretch in the north between Dum and Belgachhia on 12 November 1984.
Construction and Development
The North-South metro development required a few new advancements in the fields of common, electrical, signaling and information transfers designing. Indian engineers upheld by their own experience and aided by their studies abroad, utilized the accompanying propelled innovations without precedent for India:
Cut-and-cover strategy for development utilizing diaphragm dividers and sheet piles.
Utilization of broad decking to keep the movement streaming over the cut area while development proceeded underneath.
Shield burrowing utilizing packed air and sealed areas.
Aerating and cooling and ventilation frameworks for natural control of stations and passages.
Underground substations with dry sort transformers and SF6 circuit breakers.
Programmed ticket distributing and checking frameworks.
All the new lines were built by the new condition of-workmanship advances. The majority of the new connections are lifted with just a couple being underground. Dissimilar to the North-South Corridor which utilized the cut-and-cover technique for the entire underground course, the passages of the new lines were built utilizing a Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM).
In 2010, the Railway Ministry declared arrangements for the development of five new metro lines and an expansion of the current North-South corridor. These new ventures are:
Salt Lake City – Howrah Maidan (East-West Metro Corridor)
Joka – BBD Bagh
Noapara – Barasat through Biman Bandar (Airport)
Baranagar – Barrackpore
Noapara – Dakshineswar
New Garia – Biman Bandar (Airport)
Expansion of Line 1 from Dum to Dakshineshwar through Noapara
Major Modifications and its impacts
a.) Another 4-platform station has been built at Noapara. Commuters of Line 1 will have the capacity to interchange trains going towards the Airport by means of Line 4 (Noapara-Barasat). For now just two stages are being used, however once Line 4 begins, each of the four stages will get to be operational.
b.) A tram will be built in the current Esplanade station to give an exchange between Line 1 and Line 2.
“‘India’s Highest metro station'”: Line 2 of Kolkata metro will have an expansion towards Airport from its current Central Park station. In that expansion , another Station at the Haldiram Crossing on VIP street will be built at a tallness of 22 meters , going to be the most noteworthy in the nation .
Metro Route and Stations
Kolkata metro has 24 stations, 15 of which are underground, 7 are lifted and 2 stations are at evaluation. All the underground stations have island platforms with the exception of Park Street which has side platform. While all the lifted stations have side platforms, Noapara has island platforms and since it will be the center station for Line 1 and Line 4 it has 4 stages having a length of 182m. The standard length of platforms in Kolkata Metro is 170m. The metro stations of Gitanjali and Netaji have the most limited stages of 163m.The normal length between any two stations is 1.14 km. The most limited separation is 0.597 km in the middle of Central and Chandni Chowk, while the longest separation is 2.15 km between Dum and Belgachia. Since the charge of Kolkata metro is of the third Rail, 750 V DC, power substations were inherent Jatin Das Park, Central, Shyambazar. The kind of tracks are stabilizer less with M1A track fittings.
The rolling stock of Kolkata Metro Line 1 utilizes Indian gage a wide gage track which is fabricated by ICF, Chennai, and the electrical parts are produced by NGEF, Bangalore. At first, the moving stock armada was made out of 4-auto rakes. Throughout the years there has been impressive extension to the system, both underground and on lifted areas. With the expansion in activity, 8-auto rake development has turned into a standard for the Kolkata Metro. Quickly there are 18 Non AC rakes and 13 AC rakes. Out of the 18 Non AC rakes, 11 will be eliminated bit by bit since they have outlasted their ordinary existence of 25 years. The remaining 7 rakes are still in great condition so they will be renovated and put into administration in a stage way. As of recently, three sorts of trains have been utilized by Kolkata metro; these are – *BHEL Rake(1000 Series): 9 Rakes were made by ICF, Chennai and were gone into administration in the main stage when the metro at first kept running from Esplanade to Bhawanipur (now Netaji Bhavan). These trains were dim green in shading and had a yellow stripe at the base. Later the shading was changed to white with a dim blue stripe. Right away they are yellow with a wide chestnut band at the bottom.The rakes are generally numbered from B1 to B9 however two of these have been denounced.
Signalling and Frequency
Kolkata metro trains work on normal Indian Railways programmed signaling innovation. A Route Relay Interlocking System has been given at Mahanayak Uttam Kumar and Noapara carshed and are in operation to encourage the brief withdrawal and infusion of rakes and in addition performing shunting operations inside the carshed, required for upkeep purposes. Train Protection and Warning System(TPWS) is given on the whole extend of the Metro Railway. This framework is intended to anticipate crash brought on by human (administrator) blunder.
Facilities and Services
The Kolkata Metro gives exceptional seats in each compartment which are saved for ladies and senior nationals. The Kolkata Metro has likewise as of late acquainted usefulness with bolster versatile signs in underground passages. Metro stations are outfitted with extensive fans and few Metro rakes are ventilated. The Kolkata Metro has presented a smart card framework.
Subsequent to utilizing the megnatic ticketing framework for a long time from 1984 to 2011, Kolkata Metro presented Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) tokens by Center for Railway Information Systems(CRIS) from 2011. The old attractive strip peruser entryways were supplanted by new RFID perusers.
Subsequent to presenting RFID tokens, Kolkata metro presented a Smart Card administration presented by Center for Railway Information Systems(CRIS). These Smart cards are multi-programmable and suburbanites can settle on the different multi-ride plans. To purchase another card a suburbanite needs to store ₹60, which will be discounted after the card is returned in great condition, before its expiry date. A suburbanite can energize the savvy card for the aggregates of ₹100, 200, 300, 500 or 1000 and get 110% quality on each revive and the card is legitimate for a year. Kolkata metro additionally presented smart card reviving machines, in Park Street station, on a trial premise, where cash could be credited onto the savvy card by embeddings ₹100 notes into the machine and putting the card in its opening.
Every one of the stations are outfitted with shut circuit cameras, metal finders, and X-beam stuff scanners, making the metro the most secure type of transport in Kolkata.The taking of photos, eating, drinking and smoking are all restricted on the metro premises.
|Case Code||:||FINC068||For delivery in electronic format: Rs. 400;|
For delivery through courier (within India): Rs. 400 + Rs. 25 for Shipping & Handling Charges
ThemesProject Finance / Project Management
|Case Length||:||21 Pages|
|Teaching Note||:||Available (6 Pages)|
|Organization||:||Kolkata Metro Rail Corporation|
Recognizing the need to improve the urban transportation infrastructure in Kolkata, a metro city in the eastern part of India, the Kolkata Metro Rail Corporation (KMRC) proposed an integrated rapid mass transportation system through its East West Metro Corridor (EWMC) project which would also involve the contentious issue of land acquisition. Another concern was that the existing North South metro railway corridor, which was to be integrated with the proposed EWMC, was making continuous losses since its inception as the demand remained about 1/11th of the forecasted demand in 1990. Yet another issue was that the KMRC’s proposal included removal of the existing competitive bus services running parallel to the proposed metro routes, which would adversely affect the general commuters who would then end up having to pay higher metro fares.
Critics contended that society did not seem to be gaining anything from the project though the West Bengal Government was giving it concessions like electricity on a no profit no loss basis and there was project financing by the central and the state government. Moreover, it was feared that the project might face the same kind of fate as the North South metro railway corridor project. KMRC's proposed fares were significantly higher than some of the alternatives and even the existing metro.
This case is most suitable for the courses of Project finance, Project appraisal, Capital budgeting, Risk analysis, Economics, and any such course involving financing and appraisal issues of a large-scale project. In particular, it could be used to discuss the concept of Social Cost Benefit Analysis (SCBA) and risk analysis under project finance and appraisal using procedures like expected value analysis, sensitivity analysis, scenario analysis, and the Monte-Carlo simulation. It could also be used to explain in some part the concept of price elasticity of demand in economics and allied courses.
The target audience for this case may be those pursuing Graduate and Doctoral courses in management, the MS program, project finance programs, business finance programs, and programs relating to economics areas.
This case requires assumptions about probability ranges and distributions for some of the critical variables which could be identified through discussion. The instructor may supply those probability ranges and their distribution before case discussion. Otherwise, the students may be asked to make their own justifiable assumptions about these after identifying and classifying critical variables.
Social Cost Benefit Analysis, SCBA, Project Management, Project Finance, Project appraisal, Mass rapid transportation system, India
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